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La tragedia del Atlántico Sudoccidental. Esclavitud y Sobrepesca

Mas de 400 barcos IUU (de pesca ilegal, No Regulada y No Reportada), operan en una pequeña región de única y rica biodiversidad. Ninguno de esos barcos cumplen con ninguna regulación laboral, de seguridad, ni ambiental; es una representación de lo que sería el infierno para los Océanos.

La flota depredadora esta compuesta por unos 190 barcos chinos, 85 taiwaneses, 75 Sudcoreanos, 40 españoles (los que intercambian entre la bandera de ‘Falklands’ o España, de acuerdo a la situación), unos 15 panameños (mas que nada barcos frigoríficos, ‘FOC’ o de ‘bandera de conveniencia’)

Sumados a los estados de bandera de las embarcaciones, hay otros tres países que están directamente involucrados en el blanqueo de las capturas pesqueras ilegales y la logística: Uruguay, a través del Puerto de Montevideo, ampliamente conocido como un puerto IUU, Gran Bretaña, a través del programa de licencias de pesca desde las Malvinas, y Chile, a través del Puerto de Punta Arenas.

El Reino Unido, a través de la administración de las Islas Malvinas, vende licencias de pesca a 150 barcos de esta flota, que operan especialmente en agua internacionales, el único requisito para la obtención de la licencia, es el pago, no existe control de ningún tipo, algunos de estos barcos han sido detectados pescando dentro de la ZEE Argentina.

Debido a las terribles condiciones laborales a bordo, los tripulantes saltan fuera de borda, o son arrojados, en promedio de tres casos anuales, solamente contando los reportes oficiales. Unos 4000 esclavos son explotados por el Reino Unido bajo el programa de licencias pesqueras de las Islas Malvinas (http://www.maritimelaw.co.nz).

Como lo describe en una entrevista en video, un tripulante de uno de los barcos coreanos que operan bajo licencia británica: “tirábamos pescado y basura libremente sin ningún titubeo…el aceite usado es descargado al mar directamente de la sentina…en las Malvinas lo hacíamos en secreto”(https://youtu.be/8E9Xs_2Q5vY).

Después de dos años de investigación, basada en seguimiento satelital, y diferentes fuentes de información, se ha identificado cada barco y se ha revelado su prontuario de sobrepesca y esclavitud, la situación es espeluznante!

Ninguna de las embarcaciones cumplen con ninguna regulación, el tráfico de personas y los asesinatos son parte de las operaciones regulares, la descarga de basura, redes deterioradas y aceite usado se hace arbitrariamente, todo el tiempo, no existe ninguna restricción sobre la captura pesquera: ni por las especies, ni por la temporada, tamaño, artes de pesca, ni zonificación.

La Autoridad Pesquera de Malvinas solo cuenta con 7 observadores a bordo, que no operan permanentemente.

Los impactos ambientales son terribles, teniendo en cuenta que el calamar, la principal especie capturada, es crucial para la subsistencia de todo el ecosistema marino, siendo importante fuente de alimento para muchas otras especies, como delfines, aves, lobos marinos, cachalotes y otras especies de peces como la merluza hubbsi. Esta masiva flota de barcos IUU también captura merluza negra, especie seriamente amenazada.

Un ejemplo muy reciente del tipo de barcos que operan bajo licencia británica, es el de los Oyang 75 y 77, los que estuvieron en Puerto Argentino en abril último, y también en Montevideo en 2014.

Ambos se encuentran embargados por el Gobierno de Nueva Zelanda por falsas declaraciones de pesca y captura incidental de especies amenazadas, también han sido sentenciados por no pagar a sus tripulaciones, y como si ésto no fuese suficiente, denunciados por tortura, violaciones y esclavitud a bordo (http://www.stuff.co.nz).

Este es tan solo un caso, entre los 100 barcos IUU identificados operando bajo licencia británica desde Malvinas: desde esclavitud y asesinatos a bordo, hasta el tráfico de drogas, un abanico entre las mas flagrantes violaciones a los Derechos Humanos hasta las peores prácticas pesqueras que pueden ser imaginadas. La lista es muy extensa para el espacio de este artículo.

La única diferencia entre los barcos con licencia y los sin licencia es un papel, comprado al Reino Unido, que facilita el blanqueo de la captura, no existe ninguna regulación aplicada a esta flota, ni ambiental, ni laboral, ni de seguridad.

Muerte, esclavitud y pesca destructiva pagan la cuenta.

Si el debate y resolución de esta problemática va a ser abordada desde intereses políticos y el lucro cortoplacista de las corporaciones pesqueras, todo terminará como un caso mas de la ‘tragedy of the commons’ de la des-gobernanza de los océanos.

Si la solución va a basarse en la ciencia, el principio precautorio, y los preocupantes antecedentes al día de hoy, la respuesta es clara: cerrar el caladero.

Si fuese a realizarse esta pesca, dentro de las EEZs, o reclamadas EEZs, la misma debería hacerse por empresas realmente locales, con mano de obra local, y al menos cumpliendo el Código de Conducta para la Pesca Responsable de la FAO-UN, evitando las asociaciones con barcos y/o empresas IUU, con todas las descargas en puerto, y con toda la actividad bajo el escrutínio público, con transparencia.

La única solución para comenzar a proteger el Atlántico Sudoccidental, y a todos los océanos, es cerrar la pesca en las aguas internacionales, fuera de las ZEEs.

La ciencia se ha expedido sobre el cierre de la pesca en aguas internacionales, fuera de la ZEE:

‘Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing’ http://www.nature.com/

Es hora de que la ciencia sea escuchada en el Atlántico Sudoccidental, ya que durante décadas, las vidas humanas y la salud del océano no han tenido una voz fuerte para los funcionarios a cargo.

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U.S. Unveils Strengthened Clean Power Plan to Combat Climate Change

Belchatow Power Station in PolandChanges to the final rule may assuage many industry and state concerns but the coal industry vows to fight

By Emily Holden, Rod Kuckro, Peter Behr and ClimateWire | August 3, 2015

The 5,400 MW Bełchatów Power Station in Poland – one of the world’s largest coal-fired power stations.

Pibwl/Wikipedia

Far-reaching rules that form the backbone of the U.S. commitment to cutting global greenhouse gas emissions do much to “help ease the pain” of states and the energy industry, as one state regulator described.

The Obama administration’s final Clean Power Plan, which the White House will officially announce this afternoon, includes a slew of changes responding to constructive criticism and aiming to bolster U.S. EPA’s legal defense to imminent challenges. The rule gives states two extra years to submit plans and start making cuts, eases interim goals into a “glide path” and contains grid reliability assurance mechanisms (Greenwire, Aug. 2).

It also provides states with a model plan and with “trade-ready” elements for swapping compliance credits with one another. The regulation adopts a uniform emissions rate and assigns states’ goals based on their energy mixes, which will even out disparate state targets, EPA chief Gina McCarthy explained on a call with reporters yesterday afternoon.

The rule will incentivize early action to build renewable energy and implement user-side energy efficiency programs in low-income communities. The aim is to shift toward renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, rather than encourage an early surge toward natural gas as a means of replacing coal power, McCarthy said.

The Clean Power Plan will no longer count nuclear plants under construction in state targets, but it will give states credit for them and for increases in existing nuclear generation. Standards for new coal-fired power plants will require carbon capture and storage, but at a lower rate than previously proposed, McCarthy said. A senior administration official later clarified that new power plants that primarily run on coal could operate without deploying CCS. Requirements can be met with a range of technological options, including co-firing and, potentially, integrated gasification combined-cycle technologies to turn coal into gas, the official said.

The organization of state air administrators who will write compliance plans “gives EPA two thumbs up for responding” to many of their concerns, said Bill Becker, executive director of the National Association of Clean Air Agencies.

Electric-sector interests were cautiously optimistic about the revisions, while coal industry representatives said the new plan is a “change without a difference” and vowed to fight it until the bitter end.

Rhea Suh, president of the Natural Resources Defense Council, called the Clean Power Plan “a simple idea that will change the world.” She pledged NRDC would “fight with everything we’ve got to ensure the plan moves forward and provides the necessary momentum for unified global action.”

Power plant carbon emissions under the rule would fall 32 percent below 2005 levels by 2030—more than originally proposed.

“When the United States leads, other nations follow,” McCarthy said. “Since we proposed the rule last year, the U.S. has made joint announcements with China and Brazil where each country made major new commitments to cut carbon pollution. Since three of the world’s largest economies have stepped up, we’re confident other nations will follow, and the world will reach a climate agreement in Paris later this year.”

Utility industry awaits plan details
“Left in place are targets for replacing affordable energy with costly energy,” the National Mining Association complained. “This is not a course correction.”

Edison Electric Institute President Tom Kuhn said the organization of investor-owned utilities needed to review the final guidelines in their entirety, but its “primary concern remains the overall timing and stringency of the near-term reduction targets.”

“The industry asked that EPA provide sufficient time for states to craft compliance plans and then subject those plans to critical reliability reviews, and we are hopeful the final guidelines will address this issue,” Kuhn said.

The leader of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), Jo Ann Emerson, said her group appreciates EPA’s “efforts intended to help offset the financial burden of rising electricity prices and jobs lost due to prematurely shuttered power plants.” But she said the rule “still appears to reflect the fundamental flaws of the original proposal.”

Kirk Johnson, NRECA’s senior vice president for government relations, said that based on what is known about the changes in the rule, his guess is “some co-ops will find themselves with the other utilities in their states in a slightly easier position and others will find themselves in a harder positions relative to the proposal.”

More time to write plans, start carbon cuts
Becker said state air regulators are “particularly pleased with the additional time provided to develop and submit plans and to begin meeting the interim compliance deadline.” The rule gives states until 2018 to submit final plans and until 2022 to start making reductions.

“These changes help make good on EPA’s promise to give states significant flexibility in meeting their goals,” Becker said.

“States and utilities told us they needed more time than the proposal gave them—and we listened,” McCarthy said yesterday. “That’s why, in the final rule, required pollution reductions don’t kick in until 2022. That’s a two-year extension. We want to make sure utilities have plenty of time to take carbon pollution into account with the investments they’re already making and shift to a low-carbon future.”

Scott Segal, an industry lobbyist with law firm Bracewell & Giuliani, said, “While the final rule reflects some concession from EPA on this point, it should be noted that the final rule remains a very difficult task over a very compressed time period.”

McCarthy said to encourage states to invest early in wind and solar power, as well as energy efficiency in low-income communities, EPA is creating a voluntary matching fund program.

In a change E&E reported Saturday, EPA will no longer include energy efficiency as a building block for setting state goals, although states can still pursue programs to cut energy use as a compliance method (Greenwire, Aug. 1).

Malcolm Woolf, Advanced Energy Economy’s senior vice president for policy and government affairs, said AEE is “pleased with the increased commitment to renewable energy and energy efficiency in the final rule, but disappointed that there is no credit for action taken between now and 2020, and that not all energy efficiency is eligible for credit between 2020 and 2022.”

“These are missed opportunities in the short run. But in the long run, the final Clean Power Plan will drive improvement in the electric power system,” Woolf said.

Answers for states that ‘just say no’
EPA will also provide a model plan and propose a federal implementation standard for states that do not write their own blueprints. A handful have already vowed they will refuse to comply, and more may join them, depending on the structure of the federal plan.

Bob Perciasepe, president of the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and former EPA deputy administrator, said he knows from conversations with state leaders and utility CEOs that “even those who may openly oppose the rules are thinking hard about how to meet them.”

“Many are very interested in the types of incentive and market-based approaches EPA is encouraging,” he said. “It behooves every state to sit down with stakeholders—mayors, consumers, businesses—and craft a plan that fits it best. States should take advantage of the opportunity to innovate and make their economies stronger and more sustainable.”

In another big shift that could please some states and upset others, the rule will apply a uniform carbon emissions rate for plants.

see also:

“Using uniform national carbon pollution rates for similar types of power plants, we’ve set individual state goals based on where each state currently gets its energy,” McCarthy said. “In short, a plant in Ohio is now treated the same as a plant in New Mexico.”

The revision will bring state goals—which in the draft rule ranged from emissions rate reductions of 11 percent to 72 percent—closer together. That could require much more of some states and anger those that had less stringent goals under the proposed rule.

Boosting renewables, downplaying natural gas
While environmentalists and renewable energy advocates were sanguine about the changes, the natural gas industry balked at the White House’s objective of minimizing the switch from coal to gas.

“The White House appears to be making a shift that ignores the market reality that natural gas stands ready today to cost-effectively meet our environmental and energy challenges,” said Dan Whitten, spokesman for America’s Natural Gas Alliance. “An accelerating move to natural gas is critical to keeping the lights on, heating and cooling our homes, and fueling growth in domestic manufacturing, all while reducing air emissions.”

Whitten added that the gas industry would work with states now to ensure their plans “help them make the transition to a cleaner energy future, powered by greater use of natural gas.”

“The news today that EPA will shift the emphasis of the rule away from natural gas toward renewables would make it an even more costly and unrealistic rule,” added the American Energy Alliance.

McCarthy said that after the rules are implemented, coal power is projected to represent 27 percent of generation capacity in 2030—down from an expected average of 36 percent in 2015.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration said that without the draft Clean Power Plan, coal power would make up 30 percent of generation capacity through 2040.

The coal industry, which stands to lose market share under assumptions for both the draft and the final rule, said the final version’s tougher targets “mean the calculation for governors does not change,” according to Luke Popovich, spokesman for the National Mining Association.

States should still refuse to comply with the rule, he said, because the White House’s effort to boost renewables “spells higher costs from transmission infrastructure and monthly utility bills.”

“Are governors now willing to stick their consumers with the bill so this president can have his ‘legacy’?” Popovich said.

“The nation’s governors now have a clear choice to make about their course: Accept this flawed plan and put their citizens at risk, or reject it and challenge EPA’s authority and competence to manage their state’s energy economy from Washington,” said NMA President Hal Quinn.

The coal trade group filed a request yesterday with EPA to stay the rule while the courts weigh in on the rule, and it plans to ask the courts for a judicial stay in the likely event that fails. It is unclear how later deadlines for state implementation plan submission and compliance might hurt opponents’ chances of securing a stay, for which they must prove that the rule will do irreparable harm in the near term.

“Rest assured we won’t stop fighting until this illegal and economically destructive rule is overturned by the courts,” added Mike Duncan, president and CEO of the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity.

Nuclear power gets relief
The final plan gives the nuclear power industry two of the changes it pressed hard for, one of them affecting the treatment of the five nuclear units currently under construction in Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee. Their output now won’t be counted until the plants are actually operating, which eases those states’ compliance challenges. Increased nuclear power production from “uprates,” or capacity increases at existing plants, will also count as zero-carbon sources in meeting state requirements, making such projects more valuable.

But McCarthy did not mention a third issue—how the final plan deals with a part of the existing nuclear plant fleet that is considered “at risk” of shutting down prematurely because of competition with wind farms and natural gas generation. That may be an issue that EPA puts in the states’ hands, through new carbon trading programs that are expected to emerge, some analysts predict.

Tim Echols, a Georgia electricity regulator, said the nuclear changes were the No. 1 request from Southern states, and they will “help ease the pain.”

Rule includes reliability assurances
Much of the criticism of the draft rule revolved around how it may hurt grid reliability.

McCarthy cited two approaches in the final plan for avoiding potential reliability issues that could threaten power deliveries. The new plan will address fears of a “cliff edge” situation where a block of coal generation in a state retires faster than utilities can replace it. “We’re taking care of that through the startup change,” McCarthy said, referring to the extended 2022 compliance date, “as well as a more gradual interim step-down standard.”

The final plan also includes a “narrowly crafted” safety valve, she said. “This is an opportunity to deal with the situation that frankly we don’t see happening, but it is an insurance policy against any situation that would threaten the energy system,” she said.

The safety valve is modeled after EPA’s relief mechanism in its regulation of mercury and toxic power plant emissions, she said, without offering more details. “We don’t really expect that safety value to ever actually have to be used.” States will also have to consider reliability in their plans.

Susan Tierney, a senior adviser with the Analysis Group, said the fine print should answer some key issues. “Will power generators or states have to go through a checklist to show EPA they really need more time?” Another question is whether states that were given more immediate breathing room on carbon reduction would have to do more later to get back on track with its goals, she said.

The Obama administration will announce the rule in a ceremony at the White House at 2 p.m. today. An EPA spokeswoman said the full rule will be available on the agency website today, and EPA will follow “normal procedures for publishing in the Federal Register, which is as soon as practicable.”

“Bring a toothbrush,” McCarthy told reporters. “It’s kinda long.”

Reporters Jean Chemnick, Elizabeth Harball and Manuel Quiñones contributed.

Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC. www.eenews.net, 202-628-6500

 

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Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center

The Greenspace map of the city of Toronto constructed from the individual tree information Street Tree General Data

Omid Kardan, Peter Gozdyra, Bratislav Misic, Faisal Moola, Lyle J. Palmer, Tomáš Paus & Marc G. Berman

Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 11610 doi:10.1038/srep11610 Received 08 February 2015 Accepted 01 June 2015 Published 09 July 2015

 

Studies have shown that natural environments can enhance health and here we build upon that work by examining the associations between comprehensive greenspace metrics and health. We focused on a large urban population center (Toronto, Canada) and related the two domains by combining high-resolution satellite imagery and individual tree data from Toronto with questionnaire-based self-reports of general health perception, cardio-metabolic conditions and mental illnesses from the Ontario Health Study. Results from multiple regressions and multivariate canonical correlation analyses suggest that people who live in neighborhoods with a higher density of trees on their streets report significantly higher health perception and significantly less cardio-metabolic conditions (controlling for socio-economic and demographic factors). We find that having 10 more trees in a city block, on average, improves health perception in ways comparable to an increase in annual personal income of $10,000 and moving to a neighborhood with $10,000 higher median income or being 7 years younger. We also find that having 11 more trees in a city block, on average, decreases cardio-metabolic conditions in ways comparable to an increase in annual personal income of $20,000 and moving to a neighborhood with $20,000 higher median income or being 1.4 years younger.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2015/150709/srep11610/full/srep11610.html

 

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El Bohío boletín electrónico, Vol. 5, No. 7, julio de 2015. Publicado en Cuba. ISSN 2223-8409

Rabirrubia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contenido

Publica ProBiota “La Edad de Oro” de José Martí.

Conversando con el investigador M.C. Gerardo Suárez Álvarez del Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras, de Cuba.

Nitrogen and symbiosis in plankton.

Finaliza con éxito tesis de doctorado en ciencias geográficas sobre sustentabilidad en la

pesquería de la langosta espinosa en el golfo de Batabanó.

Why fish stay or go in winter.

Convocatorias y temas de interés.

Situación actual de la especie invasora Perna viridis (mejillón verde) en Cuba: experiencias de erradicación en la bahía de Mariel. Artículo científico.

Variación genética y flujo de genes del caracol Strombus gigas, establecida por aloenzimas en la península de Yucatán, México. Artículo científico.

El Bohío boletín electrónico, Vol. 5 No. 7, julio de 2015

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Oceanographic and Biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem, N. 115 de la Serie Técnica de la COI-UNESCO

Oceanographic and Biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

Hola a todos,

Tengo el placer de compartir con ustedes la publicación Oceanographic and Biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem, N. 115 de la Serie Técnica de la COI-UNESCO. El archivo se puede descargar en la URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/ioc/ts115

Creemos que muchos investigadores, profesionales y estudiantes pueden beneficiarse de esta publicación para obtener un conocimiento más profundo de las características y tendencias oceanográficas y biológicas del Gran Ecosistema Marino de la Corriente de Canarias.

Muchas gracias de antemano por toda difusión que puedan dar a esta publicación.

Saludos cordiales,

Itahisa Déniz González

Cover photo: Phytoplanktonic blooms along the coast of Northwest Africa and Iberian Peninsula, as seen from the concentration of chlorophyll-a, in March 2013, deduced from the data of the MODIS sensor. Numerous mesoscale features such as fronts and filaments can be observed. Image by Hervé Demarcq, IRD

Bathimetric Chart

Oceanographic and Biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem is available on-line

IOC-UNESCO Technical Series 115

The Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) is an eastern boundary upwelling system, in fact one of the 4 major upwelling systems in the world. The CCLME extends from the Strait of Gibraltar (around 36°N 5°W) to Bissagos Islands in the South of Guinea-Bissau (around 11°N 16°W), embracing the coasts and Economic Exclusive Zones of Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Spain (Canary Islands). Also Cape Verde and Guinea are under the area of influence of the Canary Current, and therefore are considered as part of the CCLME in this publication.

A complete characterization of the CCLME was achieved thanks to the dedication of 54 scientists from 25 institutions who have reviewed the scientific information accumulated in the CCLME during decades. In addition, they have kindly shared their own knowledge obtained after years of hard work in high level scientific research.

An active and fruitful collaboration has been established with our partner in this project, the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO). Twelve of its experts have contributed as authors or co-authors of many of the articles. In their articles they have not only shared their expertise, but the know-how gained by the IEO throughout decades of international cooperation programs with African countries.

Oceanographic and biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem consists in 28 articles structured in the following sections: (i) the ocean geomorphology and geological materials; (ii) the hydrographic structure and the ocean circulation; (iii) the biogeochemical characteristics of the marine environment; (iv) the life in the sea; and (v) the interannual, interdecadal and long-term variability.

The main findings are highlighted in the Executive Summary together with an indication of the gaps left in the scientific knowledge in the CCLME, evoking ideas on the topics in need of a deeper scientific research and managements goals in the CCLME.

Such a complex publication would not be possible without the generous financial support of a donor. The Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) has funded the project Enhancing oceanography capacities on Western Africa countries.

Oceanographic and biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem is also available on-line at:http://www.unesco.org/new/en/ioc/ts115

Thanks for sharing!

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Los artículos de MARINET son distribuidos gracias al apoyo y colaboración técnica de RedIRIS – Red Académica española – (http://www.rediris.es)

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Oceanographic and Biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

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Espectaculares migraciones de los tiburones tigre

Tiburón tigre en el gran azul-foto Nick Filmalter-Danah Divers
Tiburón tigre en el gran azul-foto Nick Filmalter-Danah Divers

Recientemente, la prestigiosa revista Scientific Reports  ha publicado un interesante trabajo sobre los movimientos horizontales de los tiburones tigre (Galeocerdo cuvier) por la costa atlántica americana. Este estudio liderado por los investigadoresJames Lea y Mahmood Shivji, y en el que hemos colaborado, describe unos épicos desplazamientos hasta ahora no registrados en esta especie de escualo: Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems (artículo completo de acceso libre).

Tiburón tigre en el gran azul (foto: Nick Filmalter/Danah Divers)
Tiburón tigre en el gran azul (foto: Nick Filmalter/Danah Divers)

[…] se lograron marcar unos 24 ejemplares, 20 machos y 4 hembras en las inmediaciones de las Bermudas […]

En el citado trabajo se lograron marcar unos 24 ejemplares, 20 machos y 4 hembras en las inmediaciones de las Bermudas, alcanzándose en un individuo los 1101 días (3 años) de seguimiento total. Además 8 de los tigres marcados alcanzaron los 2 años, y 18 escualos más de un año. Por otro lado, se registraron desplazamientos de hasta 7500 km entre las zonas de invernada en los arrecifes de coral caribeños (Bahamas, Islas Turcas y Caicos) y vastas áreas oceánicas a mayor latitud en los meses estivales. Las hembras preñadas y los juveniles protagonizaron migraciones parciales o desplazamientos más cortos.

Detalle de la cabeza de un tiburón tigre (foto: G. Mucientes, BEC)
Detalle de la cabeza de un tiburón tigre (foto: G. Mucientes, BEC)

ha sorprendido la utilización de ecosistemas tan dispares como arrecifes coralinos y áreas pelágicas en océano abierto

En este trabajo, ha sorprendido enormemente a los investigadores la utilización de ecosistemas tan dispares como arrecifes coralinos y áreas pelágicas en océano abierto, ya que tradicionalmente los tigres eran asociados con zonas más costeras (ningún ejemplar marcado entró en el mar Caribe). En estas áreas abiertas oceánicas muestran un patrón de búsqueda activa de alimento, y en el litoral o islas su comportamiento podría asimilarse a aspectos más reproductivos. Los ejemplares marcados mostraron un elevado nivel de filopatría (fidelidad a un determinado lugar), lo que puede deberse a asegurarse zonas de alimentación o reproducción ya conocidas. Ningún ejemplar marcado atravesó la dorsal atlántica.


James Lea (primer autor del artículo) y su equipo marcando un tiburón tigre en Bermudas (foto: Dan Beecham)

presentan una predilección por la tortugas marinas

Los contenidos estomacales examinados revelaron una notable querencia por la tortugas marinas (principalmente tortuga boba, Caretta caretta), lo que podría indicar que los desplazamientos a áreas más abiertas suceden en la procura de quelonios que migran en esas aguas de la corriente del golfo. Las características anatómicas del tigre le permiten depredar sobre tortugas, incluso partir sus caparazones.

Contenido estomacal de varios tigres: tortugas, plumas, Balistes ... (foto: G. Mucientes, BEC)
Contenido estomacal de tres tigres: tortugas, plumas de paiño, pez ballesta, … (foto: G. Mucientes, BEC)

Finalmente decir, que la presente publicación ha teniendo importante repercusión, apareciendo en diferentes medios internacionales:

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